Electron Quantum Metamaterials: Graphene Superconductors for Power

Every time we think about the future (the one that I will prominently be apart of), we wonder what buildings, cars, and fashion will look like. But not a lot of people think, “what will our climate look like in 2025?”. Realistically, what kind of a climate we will experience in 2050 is something we, to a large degree, are actually in the process of deciding.

Climate in 2050 largely depends on us

How hot could it get?

Global political leaders have agreed in the Paris Climate Agreement that we, will reduce our GHG emissions to the point that human-caused global warming will never raise the average annual global air temperature by more than two degrees Celsius. But…human-caused global warming is estimated to reach around three degrees, so how will this work?

What happens if Earth gets 2°C warmer?

It all started in 1975 with, surprisingly, an economist. Dr. William Nordhaus saw the warming planet as a threat to the global economy. He asked his colleagues in the International Institute “Can We Control Carbon Dioxide?” Nordhaus said an increase in the global average temperature of 2°C (caused by man-made carbon dioxide) would change our climate in ways never seen before.

This was TWO days ago in South Africa. Can you believe it?
All of us in 2025. Seriously.

Renewable Energy — fossil fuel biggest factor to emissions.

89% of emissions came from fossil fuels and industry. The continued use of fossil fuels for power generation has led to an increased interest in clean, green and non-polluting sources of renewable energy, such as solar, hydropower, geothermal, biomass and wind. Integration of renewables does still pose challenges such as intermittency of the resources, connection to grid, interconnects from remote generation locations, and comparative cost vs. fossil fuel generation.

Graphene Sheets.

Squeezed graphene = superconductor

Twisted bilayer graphene can be made into a superconductor by simply squeezing the two layers closer together. The causes of correlated electron phenomena in bilayer graphene could help to unravel the puzzle of unconventional superconductivity.

Graphene — evolutionary material

Graphene is a sheet of carbon just one atom thick BUT it has remarkable electronic properties which have allowed physicists to do a lot with the free-standing material since 2004.

Different forms of Graphene.

Systematic change

Many features of this superconductivity are the same as type-II superconductors like cuprates and pnictides which are superconductors that remain at relatively high temperatures and magnetic field strengths.

Type-II superconductors magnetic fields.

The Magic Angle

This angle is related to the nature of the interlayer coupling, which is changed by compressing the bilayer at pressures greater than 10,000 atm. The critical temperature of the superconductor also increases slightly from 1 K to 3 K.

Breakdown of the process

I made this drawing to breakdown the simple idea.

Also — they call this new field Electron Quantum Metamaterials 😍

Energy-efficient superconducting cable for future

As electricity flows through normal metals, electrons bump into each other and the crystal structure walls they flow through makes them loose a lot of energy (high resistance).

Endless Applications

Although there are many potential applications. For example, the most advanced technology to make prototype quantum computers today are based on superconducting devices. Magic-angle graphene superlattices could be a new type of electrically tunable superconductor. Superconductors can also be used in many other applications, such as ultrasensitive detectors of light.

I’m Alishba Imran.

I am a Blockchain, VR and Machine Learning developer interested in medicine and healthcare. If you want to stay up to date with my progress feel free to follow me on LinkedIn, and Medium! If you enjoyed reading this article, please press the👏 button, and share!

I’m a developer & innovator who enjoys building products and researching ways we can use AI, Blockchain & robotics to solve problems in healthcare and energy!